|Bimetallic Stem Thermometer|| A kitchen
staple. Accurate +- 2°. Calibrate by following
directions or by using ice bath method and adjusting
|Clostridium botulinum||There are 7 types of Botulism are recognized and
although the occurrence of outbreaks are minimal the
mortality rate is high. |
The organism and its spores are widely distributed
in nature. They occur in both cultivated and forest
soils, bottom sediments of streams, lakes, and
coastal waters, and in the intestinal tracts of fish
and mammals, and in the gills and viscera of crabs
and other shellfish.
Spores are heat resistant but is heat labile when
held at 176° for 10 minutes.
TCS foods commonly associated with Botulism are
Baked potatoes wrapped in aluminum foil and
untreated garlic in oil mixture.
|Cold Hold without Temperature control||The basic rule is that if you can maintain a food temperature (internal or surface) of 70° or below for cold
food at a buffet or other event where you have no
temperature control you can sell, serve or discard
for a period up to 6 hours. |
An ice bath can be used to help maintain
temperature. However, if temperature exceeds 70°
at anytime it should be discarded immediately.
|Cross Contamination||1. Allowing cooked (RTE) food coming to in contact
with raw TCS food or juices. |
2. Allowing raw foods with different minimum cooking
temperatures to come in contact with each other.
3. Allowing foods that contain allergens to come in
contact with any other food.
4. Transferring raw food juices to a wiping cloth
that is not sanitized after each use.
|Eviscerated||Removing entrails, disembowel. Recalls of cured un-
eviscerated fish over 5" are the most common area
you will see this term used. The risk of
Clostridium botulinum spores are greatly increased.
|Food Contact Surface||Any surface that touches food. This includes; table
tops, cutting boards, all utensils, dishes, pots &
pans, and cooking surfaces.
|HACCP||Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.|
Based on 7 principles that protect food during the
flow of food from hazards that can occur.
The 7 principles of HACCP
Conduct a Hazard Analysis
Identify Critical Control
Establish Critical Limits
Establish Corrective Actions
Record Keeping Procedure
Maryland was the first state to require every
establishment to have a HACCP plan.
|High Risk Facility||A facility that primarily sets out to serve a member
of the high risk group. Such as hospitals, nursing
homes or day care centers. Please note that high
risk facility should not be confused with the
priority level that is issued by many health
departments. That refers to the type of food and
processes you use to serve it. |
|High Risk Group||There are certain individuals that are more at risk
for developing a foodborne illness when certain
bacteria or viruses are present. They are the
Elderly, Children 0-4 and the Immune Compromised.
Immune Compromised include; cancer patients, AIDS
patients, transplant patients, certain medications
can cause immune systems to weaken.
The most common virus affecting food safety in
the US is Norovirus. Norovirus is spread to food
when someone does not wash hands properly after
using the restroom. Only a small amount of
Norovirus can get you ill. The incubation period
is generally 18-36 hours. The illness typically
lasts a week and most recover without medical
attention. You need to realize that even after
feeling better Norovirus can still be in the feces
for as much as two weeks.
If you work in a food facility you should NEVER
handle or work around food if you have diarrhea or
vomiting, go home and stay home for 24 hours after
the last "episode".
YOU MUST REPORT NOROVIRUS TO THE REGULATORY
AUTHORITY FOR YOUR AREA
|Physical Contaminant||Something in the food that does not belong there.
Hair, bandages, broken glass are all examples.
|Potentially Hazardous Food||Refers to foods that have certain characteristics
that support the growth of Bacteria. Called TCS
(Temperature Control for Safety) foods by ServSafe
® The foods are specific and are: |
These foods tend to be high in carbohydrates and
high in proteins. They are also moist. Some are on
this list for a specific risk or they have been
associated with a foodborne illness.
- Meats: Beef, Pork and Lamb
- Milk & Dairy
- Baked Potatoes wrapped in foil
- Cooked Plant Food (cooked vegetables including pasta)
- Tofu and Soy Protein, synthetic soy
- Seed Sprouts
- Cut Melons, tomatoes & cut leafy greens
- Untreated Garlic and Oil mixtures
|RTE - Ready to Eat||Foods that are not going to be heated any more
before consuming. Includes foods that are normally
consumed cold and hot foods that are already cooked. |
|Salmonella ||Salmonella is divided into two species that is then
divided into different subspecies that are then
divided into 2579 serotypes. Salmonella causes two
types of illness; Typhoidal and Nontyphoidal.|
Typhoidal - Typhi and S. Paratyphi A are
found only in human hosts and when there is no
medical treatment it can cause death in 10% of
humans. According to the CDC there are approximately
1,821 cases per year. If you have a food handler
with Salmonella Typhi you must contact the
Nontyphoidal - Caused by serotypes other than
S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A and remember there are
2579 serotypes. The illness, which occurs within 6
to 72 hours after exposure, is not as severe as it
is with the Typhoidal counterpart and most recover
within 9 days. The CDC estimate that 1,027,561 cases
a year occur domestically. Salmonella is found in
the intestinal tracts of vertebrates,
including livestock, wildlife, domestic pets, and
humans, and may also live in environments such
as pond-water sediment. It can be spread when
touching animals such as turtles.
Proper handwashing and avoiding cross contamination
are imperative in preventing Salmonella.
|Sanitizer||Chlorine, Iodine or Quaternary ammonium compounds
(quats). Used to reduce or remove pathogens that
can cause foodborne illness. |
|Staphylococcal Aureus||Staphylococcal (Staph) is 5th in the top five
pathogens contributing to domestically acquired
foodborne illnesses according to the 2011 estimates
report from the CDC (Centers for Disease Control).
It is reported that 30 - 50% of healthy humans have
Staph is their nose and 25% have Staph on their
skin. Staph is generally not transferred from human
to human but can be transferred from humans to food.
As the bacterium multiplies in food, it produces
toxins that can cause food poisoning.
Staphylococcal toxins are heat resistant.
Symptoms usually start 1-6 hours of consuming food
with the toxins but can start as soon as 30 minutes.
The illness is short lived and usually lasts 1 day
but can last as many as 3. The illness includes
nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach cramps, and
Cold foods are most commonly associated with illness
associated with Staph. Like most pathogens, the
foods may not smell bad or look spoiled in order to
produce the toxins.
Having good personal hygiene and keeping hot food
above 135 degrees and cold food below 41 degrees,
is the best defense in reducing your risk of Staph.
Avoid leaving food in between 41 -135 (TDZ) for more
than 2 hours.
|TCS - Temperature Control for Safety||See Potentially Hazardous Foods|
|TDZ - Temperature Danger Zone||41 ° - 135 ° This is the range that bacteria
grow rapidly. Cold food should be stored at
41°'s or below and hot food should be held at
135° or above. Food left in the TDZ for more
than 4 hours should be discarded. There are only
two exceptions to that rule and they are during the
cooling process or when cold holding food without
temperature control. See that term for further